The landmark of Cuxhaven
Cuxhaven is already for the navigation for many centuries an important approach location. So in the center of the 15 Century (starting from 1440) at the outermost point of land Cuxhavens an already rather reliable system of driving water markings (seetonnen and beacons), which served however only as daily markers, was developed .
The so-called "Kugelbake" as continuing nocturnal guideline assistance one had furnished only 1853. It was maintained first in a small hut within the "Kugelbake"..
The building of the first beacon at the Cuxhavener point of land is not exactly delivered. It must anyhow have been present already 1706 and establish on a place, on which up to the 1703 still another group of trees served as navigation mark and point of bearing.
Left in the picture the 1898 renewed "Kugelbake" (right beacon) are to be seen, beside their antecessor.
Until the today's form of the "Kugelbake" developed, it was a long way again and again had the timber construction work because of storm tides, thunderbolt and influences of the weather to be converted or renewed. .
To the history of the Kugelbake
The "Kugelbake" is directly in the near of the "Fort Kugelbake" in the Cuxhaven. In the year 1907 that approved nearly seven years after the award of municipal rights to the city Cuxhaven Hamburg senate the city arms of Cuxhaven: It showed among other things with the black "Kugelbake" washed around by the water on gold-primed coat of arms sign one of the today most well-known landmarks in the Elbe Weser area. The enormous, about 30 meters high timber construction, attainable over a 260 meter are enough for breakwater, belonged still to the salient buildings to the Elbmuendung, although them lost today their original meaning as important orientation and navigation mark for boat operators. The "Kugelbake" marks the geographical point, at which the Elbe ends. Since the late Middle Ages was Hamburg as actual beneficiaries of the traffic route important for the trade anxious to ensure at high financial expenditure the security of the navigation.
Even non-resident sailors should be able to navigate surely on the Elbe. Thus 16 developed in the center. Century (starting from 1440) at the outermost point of land Cuxhavens, which pushes itself halbinselfoermig between the trichtermuendungen of Elbe and Weser, an already rather reliable system of driving water markings (seetonnen and beacons), which served however only as daily markers. The so-called ""Kugelbake" light" as continuing nocturnal guideline assistance one had furnished only 1863. It was maintained first in a small hut within the "Kugelbake". The building of the first beacon at the Cuxhavener point of land, originally also as "Strangflyer beacon" or "small beacon" (in contrast to the larger directly at the port) designation, is not exactly delivered. It must anyhow have been present already 1807 and establish on a place, on which up to the year 1803 still another group of trees had served as navigation mark and point of bearing. After these trees had been away-rinsed with a violent storm tide in December 1803, the hamburgische kaemmerei, "on veranlassung of the guiding supervisor Paul Allers decided to establish here 86 foot a high beacon". The fact that the first beacon must have actually developed between 1803 and 1807 proves beyond that a Kaemmereirechnung from the year 1807 "for Theerung of the large and small beacon". Old sources occupy by the way that in the Middle Ages all navigation marks were called "beacons", even church towers or lighthouses. Then 3 terms from each other differing emerged very many later: Pricken, head beacons and Kapen. All once existing beacons received only since 1878 or even later their characteristic, appearance which can be differentiated easily. The life span of these imposanten buildings was meanwhile never particularly long, because inhospitable weather conditions, wood rot, storm and thunderbolt to at the most 30 years limited the life span of the beacons. From this considerable costs resulted; thus for example of the building of the Cuxhafener Rosbake 70,000 Marks were estimated. That with beginning the 18. Century built "Kugelbake" because of frequent storm tides and thereby conditioned land losses not always the same location to have had can, comes out from an informative report of the Kieler of professor for philosophy and mathematics, Johann Nicolaus Tetens, which this had drawn up on the occasion of a "journey into the march countries at the North Sea for the observation of the dyke construction" 1888. There it means: "... One said to me, it lives still jetzo an old woman, who had served in its youth on a Hofe, which confessed outside of the "Kugelbake", and thus now in the Elbe lies.
"far one continues Tetens: "the "Kugelbake" has its name of the spherical shape of the pan, where the fire will maintain. It marks one of the straight lines with another beacon on new work, which is called the Bluese, whereby the entry is determined into the Elbe from the lake." Additional attachment work on the "Kugelbake" took place 1830. Did not use that much, because 1843 fell with an gale the building with the bank work into the tides "... that the following morning also no trace of it to be seen were ". We owe this detailed reference from Axstedt in the old circle Weser-flow native farmer son and later director of hydraulic engineering Reinhard the Woltman (1868 - 1838), which had come for the first time around 1884 to Ritzebuettel (today a quarter of Cuxhaven) of the today's and up to the beginning of the so-called Frenchman time as a director/conductor of the stack and buildings of banks in the office Ritzebuettel was responsible for water and dyke construction. It was anyhow a long way, until the "Kugelbake" received its current form. In a rare photo document from the year 1878 we see 2 beacons nearly next to each other i.e., the then straight again established "Kugelbake" in the foreground, behind it the abort-ripe, ramshackle Vorgaengerin of 1837, which approximately 26-30 meters further north. Short time on it, in the French-German war (1880/81), had to be diminished the "Kugelbake" for safety reasons, in order to facilitate for hostile warships under no circumstances, operating before the coast, a shooting in on the coastal battery behind it. Also all Lotsenschoner, Galioten and light ships were drawn in and brought to Hamburg. The reconstruction took place in the summer 1881. The "Kugelbake" was finally renewed in the same form in July 1898 again. In order the turn of the century (1899/1900) began to make the famous maritime radio pioneer Professor Dr. Jonathan Zenneck with its attempts, over radio a connection between the mainland and ships on lake. For this purpose the responsible persons had designed a wood hut, which was equipped with all necessary technical devices and antennas within the "Kugelbake".
With outbreak of the First World War the "Kugelbake" a last mark had to yield. Only 1924 were again developed it in its current form and size with a cost of 8.000 Marks, however no more with the name-giving ball, but with 2 round, right-angled built up disks at the point. And so it is to be still admired also today.
Some nice pictures of the "Kugelbake"